With a moment of silence, prayers and anti-nuclear rallies, Japan marks on Sunday one year since an earthquake and tsunami killed thousands and set off a radiation crisis that shattered public trust in atomic power and the nation's leaders.
A year after the magnitude 9.0 earthquake unleashed a wall of water that hit Japan's northeast coast, killing nearly 16,000 and leaving nearly 3,300 unaccounted for, the country is still grappling with the human, economic and political costs.
In the port of Ofunato, hundreds of black-clad residents gathered at the town hall to lay white chrysanthemums at an altar dedicated to the town's 420 dead and missing.
"We can't just stay sad. Our mission is to face reality and move forward step by step," said petrol station owner Kosei Chiba, 46, who lost his mother and wife in the disaster.
"But the damage the town suffered was too big and our psychological scars are too deep. We need a long time to rebuild."
Just a kilometre (half a mile) from Tokyo Electric Power Company's (Tepco) (9501.T) wrecked Fukushima plant, where reactor meltdowns triggered the world's worst nuclear crisis since Chernobyl, residents of the abandoned town of Okuma were allowed back for a few hours to honour the dead.
"It was a wonderful place. If it wasn't for all that's happened, I'd be able to come back. But thanks to Tepco, I wasn't even able to search for the bodies of my relatives," said Tomoe Kimura, 93, who lost four members of his family in the tsunami, two of whom were never found.
Authorities have imposed a 20-km (12 mile) no-go zone around the plant and residents may never be allowed back.
Along the coast, police and coastguard officers, urged on by families of the missing, still search rivers and shores for remains even though the chances of finding any appear very slim.
The nation will observe a moment of silence at 2:46 p.m. (0546 GMT) when the quake struck. Ofunato, will pause again 33 minutes later to mark when a 23-metre (75-foot) tsunami ripped through this town of 41,000.
The Japanese people earned the world's admiration for their composure, discipline and resilience in the face of the disaster while its companies impressed with the speed with which they bounced back.
As a result, the $5 trillion economy looks set to return to pre-disaster levels in coming months with the help of about $230 billlion earmarked for a decade-long rebuilding effort agreed in rare cooperation between the ruling and opposition parties.
"In recent history, Japan seized rapid economic expansion from the ashes and desolation of World War Two, and we built the most energy-efficient economy in the world in the aftermath of the oil shock," Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda said in an article published in the Washington Post.
"On the anniversary of the Great East Japan Earthquake, we remember that today we face a challenge of similar proportions."
Yet people are increasingly disillusioned about the political establishment's ability to tell the truth and rise to the occasion, a deep lack of trust that one commentator called "the fourth disaster of March 11."
Politicians and bureaucrats drew fire for the chaotic response to the Fukushima disaster and their failure to seize the moment and tackle a myriad of ills that have dogged Japan for over two decades.
After a brief truce, politicians resumed the parliamentary squabbles that gave Japan its sixth leader in five years and now threaten to block important tax and welfare reform and stall other business, including legislation to set up more independent nuclear watchdog.
"There is no leadership," said Hiroaki Oikawa, 56, another Ofunato resident who lost his two fish factories and his home.
"There are no politicians to whom we can leave things."
Anti-nuclear demonstrations planned in Tokyo and elsewhere for the anniversary also serve as a reminder that many want bolder action than the government's preferred scenario of a gradual reduction in reliance on nuclear power.
"I don't understand why we keep using this very dangerous technology. Haven't they realised yet it's unsafe?," said pensioner Sachiyo Katayose, one of about 100 protesters outside the Tepco's headquarters.
Slow progress in drawing up plans for the tsunami and radiation tainted region is deepening the misery of survivors, about 326,000 of whom are still homeless, including 80,000 evacuated from the vicinity of the Fukushima plant.
While the government declared its reactors had reached "cold shutdown" in December, the country lives under a cloud of anxiety over the long-term health effects of radiation.
The plant's dismantling and the clean-up of an area the size of Luxembourg will take decades at an incalculable cost using technologies yet to be developed.
Taxpayers, facing proposed sales tax increases to help fund the country's debt, will need to cough up tens of billions of dollars to prop up Tepco -- widely attacked for ignoring the possibility of a disaster and for what critics say has been arrogance since.
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